Home Inspection Structural Framing Encyclopedia

1. Chimney - Provides a method of removing the products of combustion from a heating system, water heater, fireplace, wood burning stove, etc.

2. Flue Liner - The flue lines the chimney opening with a masonry or metal material.

3. Chimney Cap - The cap (or crown) is the top of the chimney and protects the top of the chimney from weather.

4. Chimney Flashing - Aluminum or copper sheet-metal is installed to provide a watertight joint between the chimney and the roof.

5. Firebrick - The hearth of a fireplace is lined with firebrick which can withstand the heat of a fire.

6. Ash Dump - A door in the hearth of a fireplace where ashes can be swept to a pit beneath.

7. Cleanout Door - The door to the ash pit where the ashes can be cleaned out.

8. Fireplace Chimney - The front of the fireplace chimney.

9. Outer Hearth - The portion of the fireplace hearth that extends beyond the front of the fireplace.

10. Roof Ridge - The peak of the roof.

11. Ridge Board - Board that is installed between opposing roof rafters at the ridge of the roof.

12. Roof Rafters - Structural members that support the roof.

13. Collar Tie - Structural members that tie together two opposing roof rafters; collar ties help to prevent roof spreading.

14. Roof Insulation - Insulation placed on the attic floor to reduce heat losses.

15. Roof Sheathing - The roof deck is installed over the roof rafters and provides the surface for the application of the roofing shingles. The roof deck (sheathing) can be plywood, plank, or hardboard.

16. Roofing Surface - Asphalt shingles, cedar shingles, slate tiles, clay tiles, or any other roofing material that protects a house from the weather.

17. Cornice - A decorative member that is installed at the upper portion of an exterior wall.

18. Gutter - A trough that collects and diverts water that runs off the roof.

19. Downspout - The downspout leader is a vertical component that is connected to the gutter to provide a method of diverting water that runs off the roof.

20. Storm Drain Pipe - The underground drain pipe that collects water from the downspout leader.

21. Gable - The triangular end wall of a house that has sloping roofs.

22. Fascia Board - The trim board located under the edge of the roof.

23. Louvers - An open vent cover.

24. Corner Post - The vertical member located at the corner of the house frame.

25. Stud - Vertical wooden members that frame a wall.

26. Sill - The first structural component of the framing that rests on the foundation wall.

27. Plate - The structural beam located at the top end of wall studs.

28. Corner Bracing - Diagonal members installed at corners for strength.

29. Sheathing - The outer skin of the framing to which siding is installed.

30. Joist - Structural components that support a floor or ceiling.

31.Bridging - Short members installed between adjacent joists to prevent twisting.

32. Subflooring - The plywood, planks, or hardboard that is installed over floor joists to accept finished flooring.

33. Flooring Paper - Felt paper that is installed over the subflooring prior to the installation of finished flooring.

34. Finish Flooring - Hardwood, carpet, tile, or resilient flooring.

35. Building Paper - A building wrap installed prior to the installation of siding or roofing.

36. Clapboard Siding - A type of siding; other siding can be wooden shingles, aluminum siding, vinyl siding, etc.

37. Wall Insulation - Insulation installed in exterior walls to reduce heat losses.

38. Metal Lathe - A sheet metal mesh to which plaster is applied.

39. Finished Grade Line - The level of the ground at the foundation.

40. Foundation Wall - A wall of poured concrete (or concrete block, etc.) that rests on the footings; the foundation wall supports the house.

41. Termite Shield - A metal shield that helps to prevent termites from destroying the wooden frame of the house.

42. Footing - The concrete support for the foundation walls.

43. Footing Drain Tile - A perforated drainage pipe installed at the base of the footing that functions to drain water away the house and reduce the possibility of basement water intrusion.

44. Basement Floor Slab - The reinforced poured concrete slab that forms the basement floor.

45. Gravel Fill - The gravel bed installed beneath the basement floor slab which helps to reduce the possibility of basement water seepage.

46. Girder - A main structural beam that supports floor joists.

47. Backfill - Earth installed in the area excavated for the construction of the foundation walls.

48. Areaway - An open space to permit the entry of light and air to a window.

49. Area Wall - A wall that forms the open area.

50. Window - An opening in a building to permit the entry of light and air.

51. Window Frame - The lining of a window opening.

52. Window Sash - The inner frame that contains the window glazing.

53. Lintel - The structural beam that supports a window or door opening.

54. Window Casing - The decorative portions surrounding the interior side of a window opening.

55. Entrance Canopy - A roof extension located above an entrance door;.

56. Furring - Thin strips of wood used to level a surface.

57. Stair Tread - The horizontal step of a stairway.

58. Stair Riser - The vertical portion of a stairway located between two adjacent treads.

59. Stair Stringer - The diagonal side members of a stairway to which the treads and risers are attached.

60. Newel - A post that terminates a railing.

61. Stair Rail - A hand railing in a stairwell.

62. Balusters - The vertical spindles of a guard railing.

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